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Table 4 Data on sprinkler system valve reliability

From: A review of sprinkler system effectiveness studies

Description Source Unit Minimum Mean Maximum
Sector control valve mishandled (Watanabe 1979) per demand   2.08 × 10 -3  
Priming tank gate valve (Watanabe 1979) per demand   2.47 × 10 -3  
Deluge fail to open (Moelling et al. 1980) per demand 8.9 × 10 -4 1.9 × 10 -3 3.6 × 10 -3
Check fail to open (Moelling et al. 1980) per demand 3.0 × 10 -5 1.0 × 10 -4 3.0 × 10 -4
Closed inadvertently (ICV) (Moelling et al. 1980) failures per hour 6.3 × 10 -7 6.3 × 10 -6 6.3 × 10 -5
Alarm (Moinuddin et al. 2009) per demand   2.0 × 10 -3 2.94 × 10 -3
Main stop (Moinuddin et al. 2009) per demand   2.3 × 10 -3 3.19 × 10 -3
Zone isolation (Moinuddin et al. 2009) per demand   2.2 × 10 -2 3.17 × 10 -2
due to tenancy changes      
Ordinary stop (Moinuddin et al. 2009) per demand   6.7 × 10 -4 9.60 × 10 -4
Non-return (Moinuddin et al. 2009) per demand   1.1 × 10 -3 1.76 × 10 -3
Pressure reducing (Moinuddin et al. 2009) per demand   4.77 × 10 -3 1.04 × 10 -2
Wet alarm (Nash and Young 1991) failures/year   4.0 × 10 -5  
Alternative alarm (Nash and Young 1991) failures/year   8.0 × 10 -5  
Main sprinkler stop (Nash and Young 1991) failures/year   2.0 × 10 -4  
Non-return (Nash and Young 1991) failures/year   1.0 × 10 -2  
Main stop (Finucane and Pinkney 1988) failures/year   2.3 × 10 -3  
Non-return (Finucane and Pinkney 1988) failures/year   1.0 × 10 -2  
Main sprinkler stop (Finucane and Pinkney 1988) failures/year   2.0 × 10 -3  
Wet alarm (Finucane and Pinkney 1988) failures/year   4.0 × 10 -4  
Alternative alarm (Finucane and Pinkney 1988) failures/year   8.0 × 10 -4  
Post indicating (Budnick 2001) failures/hour   0  
Alarm check (Budnick 2001) failures/hour   0  
Outside stem and yoke (Budnick 2001) failures/hour 7.5 × 10 -8 3.6 × 10 -7 8.7 × 10 -7
Main drain (Budnick 2001) failures/hour   0  
Inspector’s test (Budnick 2001) failures/hour 2.3 × 10 -6 8.3 × 10 -6 1.8 × 10 -5
Alarm (Ronty and Keski-Rahkonen 2004) failures/year 6.5 × 10 -4 1.2 × 10 -3 2.0 × 10 -3
Deluge (Critical) (SINTEF 2009) failures/ 2.8 5.8 9.4
   106 calendar hours    
Deluge (All Modes) (SINTEF 2009) failures/ 12 21 31
   106 calendar hours