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Table 2 Data on sprinkler head reliability

From: A review of sprinkler system effectiveness studies

Description Source Unit Minimum Mean Maximum
Removal (Watanabe 1979) per demand   3.0 × 10 -6  
Deformation (Watanabe 1979) per demand   4.61 × 10 -4  
Leakage (Watanabe 1979) per demand   3.36 × 10 -4  
Obstruction (heat and water) (Watanabe 1979) per demand   1.467 × 10 -3  
Partition rearrangement (Watanabe 1979) per demand   4.89 × 10 -4  
Paint loading (Watanabe 1979) per demand   6.5 × 10 -5  
Failure (Moinuddin et al. 2009) per demand   7.82 × 10 -2  
Fire detectors fail to function (Moelling et al. 1980) per demand 1.99 × 10 -3 2.97 × 10 -3 4.45 × 10 -3
Fail to open (Moelling et al. 1980) per demand   1.00 × 10 -6  
Failure (Ronty and Keski-Rahkonen 2004) failures/year 1.50 × 10 -4 1.70 × 10 -4 1.80 × 10 -4
Sprinkler installation (Ronty and Keski-Rahkonen 2004) failures/year 8.0 × 10 -3 1.1 × 10 -2 1.4 × 10 -2
New (fail dangerous) (Nash and Young 1991) failures/year   3.10 × 10 -2  
Old (fail dangerous) (Nash and Young 1991) failures/year   5.10 × 10 -2  
Failure to flow water (Finucane and Pinkney 1988) failures/year   2.0 × 10 -2  
Water released but (Finucane and Pinkney 1988) failures/year   8.0 × 10 -2  
not in intended pattern