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Table 11 Reported reasons for sprinkler systems to operate ineffectively

From: A review of sprinkler system effectiveness studies

Source Years Types of systems Water did not reach fire Inappropriate system for fire Not enough water released Manual intervation Damaged component Lack of maintenance Exposure fire Faulty building construction Miscellaneous Unknown
(Tryon and McKinnon 1969) 1925-1964 Not specified 19% 35% 21%   4%   4% 13% 4%  
(Hall 2006) 1999-2002 All sprinklers 55% 7% 31% 2% 5%      
(Hall 2007) 2002-2004 All sprinklers 41% 14% 29% 6% 4% 6%     
(Hall 2010) 2003-2007 All sprinklers 43% 12% 31% 5% 4% 4%     
(Hall 2012) 2006-2010 All sprinklers 53% 3% 18% 9% 9% 8%     
(US Department of Energy 2004) 1955-2003 Water-based     None reported       
(Powers 1979) 1969-1978 High-rise office buildings     None reported       
(Powers 1979) 1969-1978 High-rise buildings (excl. office)   100%         
(Powers 1979) 1969-1978 Low rise buildings   39%      12% 15% 18% 16%
(Marryatt 1988) 1886-1986 All sprinklers 26% 29% 2% 9%    13%    21%
   Mean 39% 20% 32% 6% 5% 6% 10% 14% 11% 19%
   St. dev. 14% 14% 30% 3% 2% 2% 5% 1% 10% 3%