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Table 10 Reported reasons for sprinkler systems to fail to operate

From: A review of sprinkler system effectiveness studies

Source Years Types of systems Number of tires Percent effective System shut off Inappropriate system Lack of maintenance Manual intervention Damaged component System frozen
(Tryon and McKinnon 1969) 1925-1964 Not specified 75290 96.2% 63% 15% 15%   3% 2%
(Hall 2006) 1999-2002 All sprinklers Not reported 89.3% 65% 5% 11% 16% 3%  
(Hall 2007) 2002-2004 All sprinklers Not reported 90% 66% 10% 10% 20% 2%  
(Hall 2010) 2003-2007 All sprinklers 44310 91% 53% 20% 15% 9% 2%  
(Hall 2012) 2006-2010 All sprinklers 47520 88% 63% 5% 6% 18% 8%  
(US Department of Energy 2004) 1955-2003 Water-based 251 98.8% 33% 33%    33%  
(Powers 1979) 1969-1978 High-rise office buildings 254 98.8% 100%      
(Powers 1979) 1969-1978 High-rise buildings (excl. office) 1394 98.4% 100%      
(Powers 1979) 1969-1978 Low rise buildings 4061 95.8% 85% 12% 3%    
(Marryatt 1988) 1886-1986 All sprinklers 9022 99.5% 100%      
    Mean 94.7% 73% 14% 10% 15% 9% 2%
    St. dev. 4.4% 23% 10% 5% 4% 12% N/A