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Table 5 Overview of sampling methods and derivatisation agents used by these sampling methods. This table summarizes the sampling method and derivatisation agent as well as the advantages and disadvantages of respective sampling method

From: The role of isocyanates in fire toxicity

Sampling method Derivatisation agent Advantages Disadvantages
Impinger Nitro reagent
MAMA
1-2PP
2-MP
Tryptamine
DBA
MAP
Acid
Alkaline ethanol
Simple set-up
Large sampling capacity
Smaller particles and gas phase molecules could be drawn out from the impinger flask
Poor collection efficiency of particles (range 0.01-1.5 μm)
Impinger-filter DBA
2-MP
MAP
No pre-impregnation of filter (DBA)
High reagent concentrations can be used
Collection of particles (range 0.01-1.5 μm)
Limited sampling time due to evaporation of the solvent
Not convenient for exposure measurements on workers
Diffusive sampling
(incl. ISO-CHEK)
2-MP
DBA
  Difficulty of discriminating between particles and droplets
Sensitive to wind, humidity and temperature fluctuations
Impregnated filter/solid sorbent samplers MAMA
1-2MP
2-PP
Tryptamine
DBA
High capacity (compared to exposure levels)
User-friendly handling
Limited amount of reagent can be used
Risk of particle depletion
Annular denuder system DBA Higher sampling capacity and efficiency for the vapour phase compared to the cylindrical type Simultaneous sampling of gaseous and aerosol concentrations