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Table 4 The main irritant and asphyxiant components in fire gases and their toxic potencies (in terms of incapacitating; and lethal concentrations) for a 30-min exposure period (ISO 13344 1996: ISO 13571 2012)

From: The fire toxicity of polyurethane foams

Yield largely independent of fire condition Yield decreases as ventilation decreases Yield increases as ventilation decreases
HF (500; 2900 ppm) CO2 (~7 %; ~10 %) also replaces O2 and increases respiration rate). CO (1170 ppm; 5700 ppm)
HCl (1000; 3800 ppm) NO2 (170; 250 ppm) HCN (82 ppm;165 ppm)
HBr (1000; 3800 ppm) SO2 (150;1400 ppm) Acrolein (30 ppm;150 ppm)
Formaldehyde (250 ppm; 750 ppm)
Aromatics, aldehydes, ketones etc.