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Table 1 Different policy factors to account for different type of activities in terms of voluntariness and benefit (Vrijling et al. 1998 )

From: Road tunnel fire safety and risk: a review

Policy factor β i Voluntariness Benefit Example and its individual risk
100 Completely voluntary Direct benefit Mountaineering 10−3
10 Voluntary Direct benefit Motor biking -
1 Neutral Direct benefit Car driving 10−4
0,1 Involuntary Some benefit Factory 10−6
0,01 Involuntary No benefit LPG station -