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Table 2 Current knowledge on factors affecting perceived risk and evacuation behavior

From: Risk perception in fire evacuation behavior revisited: definitions, related concepts, and empirical evidence

Factor Category Static/dynamic 1 Effect on perceived risk
Fire Cues Situational Dynamic More, closer, unexpected and more intense fire cues lead to higher perceived risk
Hazard proximity Situational Dynamic Inconclusive
Floor level Situational Dynamic The higher the floor, the higher the perceived risk
Context Situational Static Inconclusive
Credibility of information Situational Static Credibility of information moderates information processing and perceived risk with potential interaction effects of the source of information (another person vs. system)
Complexity of information Situational Dynamic Inconclusive
Gender Individual Static Tendency toward lower perceived risk in men, but effects are potentially modulated by age and context
Age Individual Static Inconclusive
Previous experience Individual Static Direct effects of previous experience on perceived risk are inconclusive.
Behavioral training Individual Static Inconclusive
Hazard knowledge Individual Static Knowledge about hazards increases perceived risk
Property attachment Individual Static Inconclusive
Personality traits Individual Static Inconclusive
Emotional states Individual Dynamic High arousal and state anxiety increase perceived risk
Medical factors Individual Dynamic Inconclusive
Cognitive abilities Individual Static Inconclusive
Information Processing Individual Dynamic Information that is processed easily may be associated with lower perceived risk
Trust in authorities Individual Static High trust reduces perceived risk; low trust increases perceived risk
Cognitive bias Individual Dynamic Inconclusive
Behavior of others Social Dynamic Behavior of others moderates the link between perceived risk and protective action
Social roles Social Dynamic Inconclusive
Groups Social Dynamic Higher perceived risk in groups
Organizational context Organizational Dynamic Inconclusive
  1. Note: 1Dynamic factors can change in the course of a fire emergency, e.g., the number of fire cues may increase or decrease with time.
  2. References for the findings are given in the text in Section 4.4.1 to 4.4.4.